Tradesman in small business
September 01, 2023 By Matt Yates

Sole Trader Tax Guide: How to Efficiently Manage & Pay Your Taxes


As a sole trader, the world of entrepreneurship offers a plethora of benefits and, of course, some responsibilities—prime among those is understanding and effectively managing your taxes. 

The Appeal and Benefits of Being a Sole Trader

Starting out as a sole trader is an exciting journey. From enjoying increased flexibility and control over your own business, to negotiating potentially simpler tax obligations, there’s a lot on the table for you. The main appeal of becoming a sole trader is benefits such as:

Absolute Control

As a sole trader, you're in the driver's seat. You make all the decisions—no need for lengthy boardroom discussions or consulting company directors. You get to directly shape your business vision and take it wherever you want to go.

Simplified Tax Process

Sole trading can offer a more straightforward tax situation compared to running a company. You lodge individual tax returns, making the process more accessible and manageable without the clutter of stacks of corporate tax paperwork.

Lower Startup Costs

The journey to becoming a sole trader requires less financial overhead compared to setting up a corporation. You can use this advantage of more cash flow to invest more in your business growth and innovation.

Personal Connection with Customers

Your personal income relies on the bond you share with your clients. As a sole trader, your personality is your brand. This close connection with your customers can bring a unique competitive edge that large corporations often can't match.

Ease of Closure

If the time comes to say goodbye, wrapping up a sole trader business is simpler and more hassle-free compared to dissolving a company — no need to deal with the intricacies of payroll tax or other complex processes.

Stepping into the Sole Trader World

s a sole trader or a sole proprietor, as it's also known, you're the captain of your own entrepreneurial ship. There are no partners, no directors, just you at the helm (alongside a reliable accountant, perhaps). You wield full command over every facet of your business, making it truly your own venture.

Remember, being a 'sole' trader doesn't confine you to operate single-handedly. You can absolutely hire a team— the term 'sole' emphasises your singular ownership, not the count of your dedicated workforce.

Small businesses? Many spark into existence as sole traders. It's also a fitting choice for independent contractors and self-employed individuals. As these businesses stretch their wings and grow, they may opt for a pivot in structure to a partnership or a company.


Understanding Sole Trader Tax Responsibilities

As the decision-maker, embracing the sole trader tax responsibilities that come with your role is paramount. The obligations might include Income Tax, Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Business Activity Statements (BAS) lodgement requirements. Wondering how these differ from those of a limited company? We've got you covered.

The key differences in obligations between the sole trader tax rate and a company tax rate are as follows:

Tax Rates

Sole traders are taxed as individuals, subject to marginal tax rates on a sliding scale. On the other hand, companies are treated as separate legal entities with a fixed tax rate on their taxable income, currently 25%.

Personal Liability

Sole traders have personal liability for their business debts and other obligations, such as taxes. In contrast, companies have limited liability, protecting their owners from being personally responsible for the businesses' debts and tax liabilities.

Taxable Income Threshold

For sole traders, once their taxable income reaches a certain figure, they start to pay more tax than a company would. This distinction is not applicable to companies, as they always pay tax at the fixed corporate tax rate.

Profit Distribution

Sole traders pay tax on all the income derived from their business, while companies pay tax on their profits and then distribute dividends to their shareholders, who are also taxed on these dividends.

Employee Benefits

Company owners can enjoy additional tax benefits and potentially reduce their tax bill by taking a mix of salary, dividends, and benefits. Sole traders, however, may face restrictions in this area, as sole trader pay is directly subject to individual income tax rates.

Considering these key differences in tax obligations between sole traders and companies, it's crucial to weigh the pros and cons of both structures to make an informed decision that best suits your business needs.

If you want to learn more about business structures and what to consider, download our fact sheet 'Break It Down: Business Structures'.

Navigating GST Registration and BAS Lodgement

When trying to understand sole trader tax, the first step is to look at GST & BAS. Here, we break down the essentials of Goods and Services Tax (GST) and Business Activity statement (BAS) Lodgements.

The GST registration game starts when your business's yearly revenue hits, or looks set to exceed, the $75K turnover mark (gross income from all businesses minus GST). You do not need to register for GST until you begin to earn this. If your earnings cross this line, you've got 21 days to hop on the GST register.

And hey, once you're all signed up for GST, that's when the BAS (Business Activity Statement) party begins. It's a quarterly gig, ensuring you and the ATO are on the same page about your GST, PAYG and other taxes.

If you're feeling a pinch on the due date, don't sweat it too much – just make sure you still lodge your BAS at tax time. The ATO prefers a lodged BAS without payment rather than receiving nothing at all!

Remember, there are some pretty crucial dates throughout the financial year that you'll want to pencil in. Keeping on top of these helps you stay in the ATO's good books. Or if you have an accountant in your corner, they can keep on top of this for you.

Need a helping hand sorting through it all? That's what we're here for! At Trekk Advisory, we're committed to helping you navigate these initial setting up a business steps. Let's plot a course together for smooth sailing.

Understanding Your Business Activity Statement (BAS) Deadlines

Let's take a moment to discuss the Business Activity Statement (BAS) deadlines. Here's the yearly breakdown:

  • Quarter 1 (July - September): We're looking at a 28 October payment deadline.

  • Quarter 2 (October - December): You'll need to have things sorted and paid by 28 February.

  • Quarter 3 (January - March): Circle 28 April on that calendar!

  • Quarter 4 (April - June): 28 July is the magic date.

However, an important caveat to note for Quarter 2: due to the existing extension time, an additional delay in lodgement does not apply.

Now for a little professional secret: getting assistance paying tax from a registered tax agent can extend your due date by a full month.

But if that's not possible for you just yet embracing the digital era can add another layer of convenience, potentially granting you an extra two-week period to lodge and pay your BAS.

Making Sense of Sole Trader Tax Rates

Next on the agenda is assisting you in understanding the crucial components of your tax rates. The tax-free threshold and corresponding tax rates for different income levels, alongside potential deductions—might appear daunting at first glance. But worry not, we are here to break it down and help you understand how it applies to your business.

Sole traders, like all individual taxpayers, are taxed based on a tiered system or "slab system", where different rates apply to different income ranges.

Navigating Sole Trader Tax Brackets

Here's a basic breakdown of the income tax brackets and rates:

  • For taxable income up to $18,200, no tax is owed. As noted earlier, this is the tax-free threshold.

  • For taxable income between $18,201 and $45,000, the tax rate is 19% of the amount over $18,200

  • For taxable income between $45,001 and $120,000, the tax rate is $5,092 plus 32.5% of the amount over $45,000

  • For taxable income between $120,001 and $180,000, the tax rate is $29,467 plus 37% of the amount over $120,000

  • For taxable income that exceeds $180,000, the tax rate is $51,667 plus 45% of the amount over $180,000

In conjunction with the above, there is a Medicare levy of 2% applied to most taxpayers, including sole traders.

Bear in mind, depending on your particular circumstances, the specifics may change. Therefore, it's always a good idea to seek expert advice from a tax professional or relevant tax authority.

Tony Madden and Tas walking along worksite

The Lowdown on the Tax-Free Threshold for Sole Traders

In Australia, for the income year, there's a tax-free threshold on the first $18,200 of income you earn. This is the amount of income you can earn each tax year without being liable to pay tax. It's also known as the tax-free threshold.

Sole traders, similar to wage earners, are eligible for the tax-free threshold. When you operate your business as a sole trader, you must lodge a tax return, even if your income is below the tax-free threshold. This has great implications on tax for sole traders and those running their business as a small side hustle, since they can benefit from this tax-free threshold, potentially making operating as a sole trader a smart choice.

Remember, while this provides a helpful overview, every business situation is unique. Hence, consulting a tax professional is always a wise move.

Sole Trader Tax Deductions Deciphered

An integral part of success in your sole trader journey is understanding our tax deductions. As a sole trader, there are various potential tax deductions you may be eligible for, which could help maximise your profits and minimise your income tax liability. A few of these deductions include:

  1. Advertising & marketing: From print to online ads, market research, photography, promo materials, and even website development, all are considered business expenses and can be deducted .

  2. Business computer/laptop: The cost of devices, software, repairs, and maintenance can be tax deductible, but only for the share related to business use.

  3. Business travel: Deductions for transport, accommodation, and meals related to business trips are on the table. They extend to attending conferences, seminars, and events. It's crucial when you file taxes to detail these expenses in your tax return.

  4. Insurance & phone bills: Insuring your business, whether it's small businesses or a larger enterprise, and making business-related phone calls get a tax deduction nod. Just claim the part you use for your business when it's tax time.

  5. Home office: If you have a dedicated workspace at home, expenses like cleaning, council rates, electricity, furniture repairs, insurance premiums, land taxes, and rent can be tax deductible.

  6. Machinery & equipment: From vehicles to computers, phones, and furniture, the cost of machines and tools over their effective life can be tax deductible.

  7. Motor vehicle expenses: Deductible costs include vehicle registration, insurance, financing, petrol, and servicing. The government even allows for the vehicle's depreciation. If you're a sole trader, your business income might benefit significantly from these deductions.

  8. Office supplies: Essentials like stationery, printer ink, and paper can get a thumbs up for deductions.

  9. Wages & salaries: Wages and superannuation contributions for staff are deductible expenses.

  10. Self-education: Deductions extend to expenses like accommodation, travel, conferences, courses, seminars, fees, photocopying, and textbooks if they relate directly to your business. For those in the following the individual income tax rate, these deductions can be significant.

What deductions won't fly?

Here's a heads-up on some non-deductible expenses:

  • childcare

  • family clothing

  • entertainment and sightseeing

  • traffic fines or penalties

  • hobby money

  • GST part of a purchase

  • travel insurance, passports, and visas


Navigating PAYG Instalments: An In-Depth Overview

As business owners, we know the world of finance can sometimes seem complex, but there are systems designed to simplify this journey for us. One such offering from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) is the Pay As You Go (PAYG) instalments system. Let's delve into what it is and how it can benefit us.

Understanding the PAYG System

PAYG essentially distributes your income tax obligations throughout the financial year, replacing the need for a significant end-of-year payment. This convenient approach allows for more controlled financial management, mirroring the concept of a subscription service where you pay as you go or pay as you use.

Estimating and Selecting Instalment Amounts

Projection is the linchpin of this venture. While the ATO typically proposes an instalment amount extrapolated from your previous income tax return, variations in anticipated business expenses or income may require you to nominate a different amount.

Estimation involves applying your expected income for the period to the relevant PAYGI rate (supplied by the ATO), leading to the payable amount. Striving for accuracy is critical here to prevent overpayment or underpayment, both of which could create unnecessary complications.

Making Instalment Payments Using myGov or BPAY

Once the instalment amount is established, it's time to proceed with payment. Two user-friendly methods are presented for this task:

  • myGov: Through your personal myGov account, navigate to the 'Tax' menu, select 'PAYG instalments', and follow the detailed directions. The payment reference number (PRN) required is pre-filled in this platform.

  • BPAY: Employing the Biller Code 75556 and your custom PRN (discovered in your Activity Statement or instalment notice) will allow you to complete the payment.

In Conclusion: Mastering Sole Trader Tax Management

Throughout this guide, we've unwrapped the complex world of sole trader taxes, from assessing the benefits of being a sole trader to nailing BAS lodgements, understanding tax rates, decoding possible deductions, to making sense of PAYG instalments, we've covered it all.

As a sole trader, you have full control of your entrepreneurial journey, reaping the benefits of simplified tax returns, lower startup costs, and a direct bond with your customers, with fewer red tape hassles if you decide to exit.

That being said, managing your business income brings about its fair share of tax responsibilities—both GST and BAS are key players here. You also need to grasp your tax liabilities vis-à-vis your earning brackets and cherry-pick from a range of potential tax deductions.

Explore the PAYG concept to ease your financial management, spreading your income tax commitments evenly throughout the financial year. While you're contemplating how much income tax you might owe, remember the ATO's tax terrain isn't set in stone, so it's worth seeking professional guidance from a tax accountant to fully understand your individual circumstances and how these tax rules apply to you.

Weaving through the intricate tapestry of sole trader tax needn't be a lonely journey. At Trekk Advisory, we're ready to partner with you, providing the expertise and innovative solutions you need to conquer your tax bill and other challenges. We can help with accounting fees, assist in understanding how sole traders pay taxes, and guide you through the nuances of quarterly payments. We're all about assisting you through the unknown and celebrating your business profits and growth. So why not get in touch with us? Let's team up to navigate the sea of business, together.



Remember, the information in this article is general—it's not one-size-fits-all advice. Choosing a business structure is personal and may require multiple entities for tax effectiveness, wealth creation, and, most importantly, protecting what's yours. Always consult your advisor before making decisions based on this piece. The info here is accurate to our knowledge at the time of publishing. For tailor-made advice, don't hesitate to get in touch with us at Trekk Advisory. We're here to help you grow.

Free download: Break It Down - Business Structures   Struggling with what business structure is best for your business? Get your hands on our guide. It spells out the nitty-gritty of key structures, helping you make the best call. Let's conquer this together!

About Author

Matt Yates

Matt and his wife made a decision to leave the big smoke and move to the greener pastures of Lismore after years of working and studying in Brisbane. He started at Trekk Northern Rivers in 2018 and quickly became our SMSF Specialist, as well as damn good accountant (obviously). The people he works with and the clients he gets to help on a daily basis are what 'makes the job worth jobbing'. Matt's a self-confessed gym rat and has also recently taken up BBQing and smoking meats. He says "You bring the beer, I'll bring the meat!". He has called himself the hungry hungry caterpillar in another life, because, well, he likes food. Hopefully soon he'll be able to cross a few things off his bucket list including skiing in Japan, backpacking through Netherlands and Oktoberfest in Germany

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